These allusions were almost certainly derived, directly or otherwise, from Culhwch ac Olwen itself. 'which might capture'
360 The hamper of Gwyddno Garanhir appears in the Tri Thlws ar Dec Ynys Brydain ('The Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain', TYP pp.240-249). Contents. subjunctive uei throughout this passage
152 rac y yskafned lit. 378 Drutwyn ceneu Greit mab Eri. part 1. ", Spoke Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd "Is there a porter? This figure probably identical with the [G]wdolwyn Gorr named as the father of Eurolwyn, in the roll-call of mwyn merchedd at the end of the Court List (see n.### below). son of Lightning') who appears later on in Culhwch ac Olwen (see n.### below) and on line 15 of Pa Gur. Thompson and Bromwich cite K H Jackson's opinion Bannog (CO p.123) was the old British name for the range of mountains running along the northern border of the Central Belt area. The CO edition on which this translation is based hereafter follows the Red Book text (R). The name is reminiscent of the form Flamdwyn 'Flame Bearer' which occurs in the poems of the historical Taliesin, apparently denoting Aethelfrith or one of the other Iding warlords of late sixth-century Bernicia (see pp.### above). Another alternative is that 'iron' is being used generically here by Ysbaddaden to denote any kind of wounding weapon. 409 Goreu 'Best'
410 Kellelprennu lit. Mascen, Emrys, Ceredic of Strathclyde and Cunedda). I was there when you conquered Greece as far as the East, I was there in the Caer Oeth and Anoeth48 and the Caer of Nevenhir49 Nawdant.50 Fair princely men have I seen there, [but] never have I seen the like of this [one] who is before the gate now. 'the coming of him above the giant'. And the hosts of Arthur dispersed themselves, each man to his own country. ", "I will give the prisoner to you, though I had not been prepared to give him to anyone. If you open the door, it will be good. Elsewhere, in a late triad (Triad 92) this same ancient blackbird is described as residing in Celli Gardarn. Culhwch ac Olwen : German - English translations and synonyms (BEOLINGUS Online dictionary, TU Chemnitz) [a] He sends not only six of his finest warriors (Cai, Bedwyr, Gwalchmei, Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd, Menw son of Tairgwaedd, Cynddylig Gyfarwydd), but a huge list of personages of various skills (including Gwynn ap Nudd) recruited to join Culhwch in his search for Olwen. "[the] head of a spear comes from its shaft, and it is that which draws blood from the wind and alights upon the shaft." 202 Cas mab Saidi. As with Dyfnwal Moel, and the sons of Nwython listed below, these names appear to derive from a Central Belt context, and might even represent part of the core of the retinue of the original Northern Arthur. ", "Can I have God's truth upon that, and the truth of your kingdom? The Tri Thlws ar Dec (TYP pp.240-249) mentions Pair Dyrnwch Gawr 'the Cauldron of Dyrnwch the Giant', which almost certainly corresponds to the cauldron described here. Do not seek harm and hurt and martyrdom as what is to be upon you, and more than that if you wish. ", "I have. 304 Deuawt oet arnaw ny chollet oen eiroet ganthaw lit. 505 A Gwyn am Tringat mab Neuet ac Eiryawn Pennlloran. Clydno Eidno, Urien Rheged). The gate was opened, and Bedwyr came inside. Included in the list are names taken from Irish legend, hagiography, and sometimes actual history. However, this bridal quest serves merely as a frame story for the rest of the events that form the in-story, where the title characters go largely unmentioned. When he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Arthur was angry to see his two servants at the point of death, and sought to seize the cave. Given the description that follows, 'Marblehead' might be an appropriate rendition. ", Glewlwyd went to the gate, and opened the gate before him. 419 Rhedynfre 'Fern Hill'. Later on, after the other three assistant porters have been killed during the hunting of the Twrch Trwyth, it is noted that Glewlwydd Gafaelfawr is left with Llaeskemyn alone, 'who was no use to anyone' (see text here). Neither the food nor the clothing of my daughter will be won by you. See n.366
471 Gwelsant niuer Otgar eu meint lit. Eidyl = Eiddyl 'weak'. It has been plausibly suggest by Bromwich and Evans (CO p.145) among others, that the original form of the patronymic was Nudd Llaw Eraint, cognate with the Irish Nuadu Airgetlám, whose prosthetic silver arm is the result of an injury sustained while fighting the Fir Bolg, as alluded to in the Middle Irish Cath Maige Tuired. Another example of the 'anachronistic' aspect of this Court List (see p.### below). 129Ermit map Erbin a Dyuel mab Erbin a Gwynn mab Ermit a Chyndrwyn mab Ermit. "402, "Knife has gone into food and drink into horn, and a throng in[to] the hall of Wrnach. The story is on one level a folktale, belonging to the bridal quest "the giant's daughter" tale type (more formally categorized as Six Go through the Whole World type, AT 513A). Cai is a consistently fractious presence in the Romances, and this may represent an early example of this characterisation. (On the 'timelessness' of this Arthurian Court List, see p.### below). Nothing more is known about the legend that might lie behind this allusion. 204 Gwilenhin (R: Gwilenhen) brenhin Freinc. It is prophesied that he should get an heir. The cantref would be divided into smaller units, commotes, and each commote would have a defined quantity of food-render (and armed service) it was obliged to provide for its various overlords and royal officials (these are defined with some precision in the medieval Welsh lawbooks, LHD p.121-122)
217 Trydet gordibla Kernyw a Dyfneint pan gahad idaw y wala lit. The epithet Pebyr ('shining, bright') was also born by Gronw Bebyr, Blodeuwedd's seducer in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi. 54 Hyt tra yn dygycher lit. This individual appears (along with his son) in the Court List. The same word is also used to denote female genitalia. Footnotes. See also p.### n.### below. 31 This is one of a number of passages in Culhwch ac Olwen which resemble the 'runs' of traditional Irish storytelling or, no less, of the rhetorical flourishes in formal Welsh speaking that are known as areithiau. Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur. Cai took a streak of whetstone from under his arm. What I did, me and and my kindred, was launch an attack on him, seeking to destroy him. ", She had two feelings: she had joy [at] the coming to her of her nephew, her sister's son; and sadness because she had never seen anyone go with his soul [still] with him who had come asking for that entreaty.317, They made for the gate of the court of Custennin the Shepherd. 274 Gwenwledyr merch Waredur Kyrfach. [G]wyllt is cognate with the Irish Geillt, both of which are used to describe a very specific form of trance-state associated both with prophetic inspiration and post-traumatic stress. 9 A common practice in the medieval Celtic world - see p.### above. Culhwch's father, King Cilydd son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth. 445 Greid's appearance here may be explained by his fame as one of the 'Exalted Prisoners'. Arthur set out with a light retinue and went in Prydwen his ship. And, thereafter, Cai would not concern himself with Arthur if he was in need: whether he suffered misfortune or had men killed. For Greit mab Eri see n.74 above. Like its Irish cognate feiss, the term gwest in this context emphasises the public/ritual aspect of the union. Bromwich and Roberts (CO p.144) identify this with the Llyn Lliwan, located around the Gwent coastland of the Severn Estuary, mentioned later on in the text at the climax of the hunting of the Twrch Trwyth. 249 Pwyll Hanner Dyn lit. For neges "errand, mission, entreaty" see n.317 above. It was greivous enough what God has done to us, without you coming to fight with us. Bradwen 'Cunning, Wily' and Mor(y)en 'Sea Born' are both found in the Gododdin and the Graves Stanzas. Spoke his father to him "O boy, why do you blush? This would appear to be one of the more outlying reference points in the mental geography of Culhwch ac Olwen, effectively indistinguishable from the exotic 'otherworlds' listed by Glewlwyd in his preamble to Arthur above. 479 Geissaw ymadrawd lit. The epithets have some semantic content: Rhyddwyrs 'Easy-Difficult' Rhuddwern 'Red Alder'. 516-520. Bromwich and Evans (CO p.99) draw attention to a similar figure mentioned in the Historia Gruffydd fab Cynan, who may have been the partial inspiration for this character: Mathgauyn (Ir. She found herself at a place5 where a swineherd kept a herd of pigs. Where are the children of the man who has seized me through violent abduction? Bromwich and Evans (CO p.59) have suggested that some of these topographic and legendary references seem to be traditional (e.g. Both the Emperor Constantius (d. AD 306) and his son Constantine the Great (d. AD 337) were themselves emblematic figures in post-Roman and Early Medieval Britain, and there may have been a typological echo here of the latter, around whom there was a rich body of medieval legend. Whoever would see her would love her completely. "334, They got up, and Ysbaddaden Bencawr seized one of the three poisoned stone spears335 that were at his side and hurled it after them. 537 o'r pan gauas y tir lit. 237 Grudlwyn Gorr 'Gruddlwyn the Dwarf'. 490 Niuer i.e. (Culhwch ac Olwen) CIP pref. 66 See p.### n.### above for more on the origins of this name, and its relationship with the Irish Findabair. This rare word for owl is unique to surviving medieval Welsh sources, but not unknown elsewhere. ', Henwas and Hen Wyneb and Hengydymaith;178 and Gallgoig179 [was] another - [any] township he would come into, even if there were three hundred houses in it, there would be no rest for any man as long as he was there.180 Berwyn son of Cyrenyr,181 and Peris King of France - after whom Caer Paris is named. 506 Kynlas mab Kynan. Probably a duplicate of Gwenwynwyn mab Naw who appears earlier on in this list. "dress, stretch, lengthen"
371 c[h]effir < impers. I have noted some of the more relevant correspondances elsewhere (Parker, 2005, p.213 ff.) Rhuawn Pebyr (apparently a different individual) is named as one of the Three Fair Lords (Gwyndeyrn) of the Island of Britain in Triad 3. A suggestive resemblance to Ptolemy's Tarvedum Promontium in the far north of Scotland hints at a possible Pictish origin (this peninsula was also known - significantly - as the Orcas peninsula, evidently deriving from an early Celtic form orc- 'young pig'. And then Arthur sang this englyn: From the beard of Dillus, the son of Efrei440, Had he been healthy, you would he would slay!441. It is highly unlikely these characters had an independent existence in the Welsh tradition prior to the composition of this text. And she came: a robe of flame-red about her, with a collar of red-gold around the neck of the maiden, with precious pearls and red gems upon it. 148 The five sons of Erim are otherwise unknown in the Welsh tradition. Thereupon, Arthur went with his host until they caught up with him in Cornwall. Culhwch and Olwen was first made popular as a part of Charlotte Guest’s Mabinogion. 'Not was imprisoned anyone as painful a type of imprisonment as me'
426 This appears to be an allusion to a variant of Triad 52, The Three Exalted Prisoners, in which the prisoners named included Llŷy Llediaith and Gweir ap Geirioed (see p.### above). 411 a chaffwyf inheu gwneuthur rei newyd idaw lit. And that night Olwen became Kilhwch's bride, and she continued to be his wife as long as she lived. 166 Thecuan Glof 'Tegfan the Lame'. No Dyfnarth son of Gwrgwst is known to the genealogies, but the name Dyfnarth is thought to be cognate with the Irish Domamgart, the name of Aedán mac Gabrain's grandfather, and may also be identical with the form Dunarth brenhin Gogledd that occurs in the Court List (see n.163 above). 201 Ardyrchawc Prydein. Otherwise unknown. 450 Nwython. And they went from there to Llwch Tawy.522 Then Grugyn Gwrych Eraint separated from them and went from there to Din Tywi.523 And from there he went over to Ceredigion, along with Eli and Trachmyr and a multitude together with them. ", "Though you may get that, there is that which you will not get. The Tyrrehnian Sea would have crossed on the trade route which brought Phocaean red slipware to the British Isles in the decades around the early sixth century, a route which one might expect would have also carried pilgrims from the Insular West to Rome and the Eastern Mediterranean. The verbal noun is the aspirated form of asswynaw, borrowing from the late Latin assegno (assigno) 'assign, notarise, allocate', with its meaning apparently influenced by the native swyn 'charm, spell'. "Are my wicked servants and idle ones here?" 267 Merch Unig Clememyl. 'Hundred Holds Hundred Hands' see n.96 above. 'gap, notch, breach'. Clememyl's only daughter. Like Bedwin the Bishop (see below), this cleric plays no further part in the adventure. 'One of the Three Great Plagues of Cornwall and Devon when was got to him his fill'. Landsend in the far west of Cornwall. Otherwise unknown. Lo! As Bromwich and Evans also note, Ricca occurs as a variant of Rita Gawr (Geoffrey's Ritho), the name of the Snowdonian giant (and antagonist of Arthur) known in Welsh folklore (CO p.82). I want a tribute of food from that the night my daughter sleeps with you.361 He will not give it freely to anyone, nor can you force him. And he takes the scabbard, and the sword in the other hand. And she and her two whelps were thus encircled. This Nuadu is equivilant to the Romano-British Nodens, whose temple at Lydney seems to have been a significant centre in the Forest of Dean area during the fourth century AD. *The White Book text (W) breaks off at this point. And then another of his pigs was killed: Gwys516 was his name. And he got nothing, however, apart from one of his bristles. His status as a receptacle of the spirits of Annwfn reflects this, as does his portrayal later on in the text. 'any more'. For more on Beli Mawr see p.### ff. ", [Thus] he invoked his boon [in the name of]70 Cai and Bedwyr71 and Greidol Gallddofyd72 and Gwythyr son of Greidol73 and Graid son of Eri74 and Cynddylig Gyfarwydd75 and Tathal Twyll Golau76 and Maelwys son of Baeddan77 and Cnychwr son of Nes and Cubert son of Daere and Ffercos map Poch and Lluber Beuthach and Corfill Berfach.78, And Gwyn son of Esni and Gwyn son of Nwyfre and Gwyn son of Nudd,79 and Edern son of Nudd80 and [C]adwy son of Geraint81 and Fflewdwr Fflam Wledig82 and Rhuawn Bebyr son of Dorath83 and Bradwen son of Moren Mynog and Moren Mynog himself84 and Dalldaf Eil Comin Cof85 and the son of Alun Dyfed86 and the son of Saidi87 and the son Gwryon88 and Uchdryd Ardwyad Cad89 and Cynwas Cwrfagl90 and Gwrhyr Gwarthegfras91 and Isberyr Ewingath92 and Gallgoid Gofyniad93 and Duach and Bratach and Nerthach sons of Gwawrdur Cyrfach - from the uplands of Hell were those men sprung.94, And Cilydd Canhastyr95 and Canhastyr Can Llaw96 and Cors Cant Ewin97 Esgair Gulhwch Gofyncawn98 and Drustwrn Hayarn99 and Glewlwydd Gafalfawr100 and Lloch Llaw Wynniog101 and Anwas Edeiniog102 and Sinnoch son of Seithfed and Wadu son of Seithfed and Naw son of Seithfed and Gwenwynwyn son of Naw son of Seithfed and Bedyw son of Seithfed103 and Gobrwy son of Echel Forddwyd Twll ac Echel Forddwyd Twll himself104 and Mael son of Roycal and Dadwair Dallben105 and Garwyli Eil Gwythog Gwyr and Gwythog Gwyr himself106 and Gormant son of Ricca107 and Menw son of Teirgwaedd108 and Digon son of Alar109 and Selif son of Sinoid110 and Gusg son of Achen111 and Nerth son of Cadarn112 and Drutwas son of Tryffin113 and Twrch son of Perif and Twrch son of Anwas114 and Iona King of France115 and Sel son of Selgi116 and Teregud son of Iaen and Sulien son of Iaen and Bradwen son of Iaen and Moren son of Iaen and Siawn son of Iaen and Caradog son of Iaen - men of Caer Tathyl were they, Arthur's kindred on his father's side. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden Pencawr. I want to get [the flax] from the new land over there, so that it might be a veil to go around the head of my daughter on your wedding feast. The best walker was he, and the best rider. 97 Cwrs Cant Ewin. the River Nevern in North Pembrokeshire. Eheubryd is thus a son of one of the trio whose characteristics and affiliations were enumerated in the sequence above. 510 Llwydawc Gouynnyat 'L. 394 Guilhenin brenhin Freinc. 3 Gwedy y west genti lit. This seems to be a duplicate of a name that occurs earlier on in the list. Allt Clud or the Rock of Clyde is the traditional name of the Brythonic territory more usually (if anachronistically) known as Strathclyde (see p.### etc.). suffix) also occurs in Y Gododdin. Give it to me to take away the wooden side-pieces,410 so that I can make some new ones for it."411. Said the chieftain "Everyone has had his boon but I am still lacking. 268 Kelemon merch Kei. Drust and its diminutive Drosten appear in the Pictish king lists (see p.### above), and the latter is cognate with the Welsh Drystan. The name Amaethon derives from the root amaeth (< Gaulish ambactus) 'ploughman' + -onus/-ona suffix, often used in divine names in the pre-Christian Gallo-Brittonic world (c.f. ", "There is. 407 budugawl lit. He will get it from you since he has not got one from any other [woman]. 406 Penn y wayw a daw y ar baladyr, ac yssef a dygrych y guaet y ar guynt, ac a diskyn ar y baladyr lit. And he went with all those hosts over to Ireland, and there was great fear and trembling before him in Ireland. The story of Culhwch and Olwen is a remarkable Welsh tale told in two manuscripts. The White Book text presents an abbreviated varient hawd yw genyf... / kyt keffych... for most of this list, although one might suspect that the full version (as given in R) would have been recited during oral performances. He, for his part, sent messengers to make peace with me, and he came to me himself, to have ten and forty tridents removed from his back. 'before the coming of Arthur'. Then he stood at bay, and then he killed Echel Forddwyt Twll,520 and Arwyli Eil Gwyddog Gwyr,521 and many men and dogs besides. Here, hynny is being used with the dramatic present (once again) to emphasise the sense of wonder and surprise. See p.### below for more on this dynamic. C.f. 48 Caer Oeth ac Caer Anoeth are referenced in poems of the legendry Taliesin and triads, as we have seen (p.###)
49 Nefenhir (without the epithet) occurs in the poem Cad Godeu. Charlotte Guest's suggestion of Pwll Crochan near Pembroke is not implausible. Together with that you will get my strength and my support. 208 Atleudor (R: a Fflendor) mab Naf. Although Olwen is quite taken with Culhwch herself, the problem is that her dad is fated to die if she marries, which means he will, understandably, only consent if Culhwch completes a series of nearly impossible tasks. He thrust it into the head of the giant, and struck his head off him with a blow, laying waste to the caer and carrying off whatever jewels they desired. Another member of the dynasty of Dôn, who (like his brother Amaethon) seems to have been akind of 'culture hero', associated with a particular craft or skill. No-one has come [away] with his life [after] doing that to him. 213 Kymeint a'r uas twym pan dynhet o'r eueil oed tan llachar y wadneu pan gyuarfei galet ac ef lit. See n.298 for the use of hyny uyd and the dramatic present in the almost identical sequence which preceeds the arrival at Ysbaddaden's caer. Their names, particularly that of Aethlem, suggest an Anglo-Saxon derivation. "Arthur is your cousin. Before the comb could be taken from him,535 he got onto [dry] land with his feet,536 and as soon as he made landfall537 neither dog, nor man nor horse could keep up with him until he went into Cornwall. Whatever dead trees or bushes might be on the plain, his breath would burn them down to the very ground.305, Spoke Cai "Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd, go and converse with [that] man yonder. Ysbaddaden Bencawr said "Is is you who asks for my daughter? 101 Lloch Llawwynnyawc lit. < mynnu)
346 Mae uyg gweisson lit. "404, "Do it the way you would want it, if it were yours."405. 412 Dyuot ohonaw vch pen y kawr lit. And Caw of Prydein took the blood of the witch and kept it with him. Cei is engaging in the kind of "dark speech" which typifies the pagan/monstrous protagonists in this text. Caledfwlch, of course, was the ultimate source of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Caliburnus, which became Escalibor in Old French sources which was borrowed back into Middle English as the familiar Excalibur. 80 Edern mab Nud < Aeternus son of Nodens. above. 'White Track'. 134 Llawurodet Uarawc 'Llawfrodedd the Bearded'. 141 Yn gythreul canhorthwy. Arthur took a gold comb, and [a pair] of shears with silver loops upon it, and he combed his hair. Gloyw Wallt may be identical with Gloiu or Gliui, the eponymous founder of the city of Gloucester, who in turn was one of the ancestors of Vortigern. And [then] Cacamwri laid hold of her by the hair of her head, and threw her to the floor, and she turned back on Cacamwri and dressed them both down541 and disarmed them, and drove them out of the cave squealing and squalling. Has something been lost in Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieith's translation, or is it simply a further example of the 'dark speech' of the pagan community? 424 Caer Lloyw = Gloucester (see n.122. This would have touched on a familiar set of social anxieties within the medieval court community, where the relative status of the various siblings and collaterals within the royal kindred was a critical factor in their life outcomes, and (not infrequently) their very survival (see p.### above). The name here appears to be corrupt in both versions. "17, Spoke the queen: "Woe is me that I have come to a childless [man]. And the warriors ranged along both banks of the Nyfer. 482 The harbour at the mouth of the River Alun, five miles south of St Davids. The young man immediately sets off to seek his kinsman. 500 Llaesgemyn. 'Lloch of the Striking Hand'. Thus these two names, whatever concrete historical significance they may have held, nonetheless edge towards the same semantic space as the 'substantive' pairings found within this list (e.g. There may have been some narrative material associated with this relationship, although possibly only as a fairly late accretition to the complex. 248 Gwaeddan merch Kynuelyn Keudawc. 191 Huabwy mab Gwryon (R: Hunabwy). part 1. If you do not, I will bring infamy to your lord and ill-repute to yourself. 'A leash made Kei/From the beard of Dillus son of Efrei/If he had been heathly, your death he would be'. He is also named in the Beddau stanzas and the Triads of the Horses in the Black Book of Carmarthen. His name appears again as a patronymic later on in the court list, where (by implication) he is represented as Arthur's 'step grandfather' on his mother's side (see n.### p.### below)
102 Anwas Edeinawc lit. Llynn Lliwan may be identical with the Llyn Llyw, home of the salmon in the Oldest Animals episode (see n.423 above). I shall not be any the better for it unless he is alive it is pulled off his head. Cadwy/Cado mab Geraint is a fairly well-established figure in the genealogy and hagiography of the South West, generally located in the Somerset area around the time of Arthur. And then [the Twrch Trwyth] set out from Glyn Nyfer and came to Cwm Cerwyn, and there he stood at bay. 501 gwr ny hanoed well neb ohanaw lit. Tell [me] who you are. 'Little White Haft'. "Leave him," said Cai "to eat his fill of the meat, and after that he will fall asleep.". Parcourez notre sélection de culhwch and olwen : vous y trouverez les meilleures pièces uniques ou personnalisées de nos boutiques. The Court List closes with the same phraseology with which it opens. He was seven years old when he was sent away to be fostered and now he's fourteen. 'at the breast of the day'
499 tri gweis Glewlwyt Gavaelvawr. And as for me, the roots of my wings are like stumps. Arthur summoned the warriors of this island and went over to Caer Loyw, where Mabon was in prison. 'As long as our seeking out.' He appears in Triad 46 as the owner of Cornillo, one of the Prif Uuch 'Chief Cows' of the Island of Britain, and a magical knife in Tri Thlws ar Deg Ynys Prydain ('Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain') and in the genealogical tracts. Which, of course he does, before eventually killing poor, old Ysbaddaden, and finally winning his bride. Culhwch, son of Cilydd, a nobleman of Wales. He could become as tall as the highest tree in a forest if he wanted. n.8 above) + manawyt, a variant form of Manawydan. one who feeds the birds with the corpses on the field of war, a form that is attested elsewhere. 2 Anblaud Regis Brittaniae is identified as the maternal grandfather of the hero-saint in Vita Illtudi (c.1140). "379, "Though you may get that [...] There is no collar in the world that can hold the leash apart from the collar of Canhastyr Canllaw. Culhwch and Olwen | Evans, D. Simon, Bromwich, Rachel | ISBN: 9780708311271 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The story of Culhwch and Olwen is a remarkable Welsh tale told in two manuscripts. Sol and Gwadn Ossol and Gwadn Oddaith212 - Sol, who was able to stand for one [whole] day on one foot; Gwadn Ossol, if he was to stand on top of the biggest mountain in the world, it would become a flat plain under his foot; Gwadn Oddaith, as bright as hot metal dragged from the forge were the flames under his feet when he encountered strife;213 he would clear the road for Arthur on the warpath.214 Hir Erwm and Hir Atrwm,215 the day they would come to the feast, they would seize three cantrefs216 for their needs, feasting and boozing from noon until night. We have already seen that he played no part in the acquisition of Wrnarch Gawr's sword. and trans. Bromwich and Evans (CO p. 104) list a number of similarly named figures from elsewhere in the Welsh tradition.